Nothing than happened, as far as combat, outside of Europe and the North Atlantic affected the outcome of the World War I. The fighting in the Middle East, in Africa, in Gallipoli--that was all a sideshow.
This doesn't mean that what happened outside of Europe was irrelevant. Until Europe went to war with itself in 1914, a relatively small portion of the world's population had been able to dominate the globe. Those European nations exhausted themselves in the spilling of blood and treasure in what amounted to a mutual suicide pact in terms of Europe being able to rule Africa, the Middle East and Asia. Some colonial empire immediately collapsed, while a few others, those of the war's victors such as Britain and France, staggered on until finally ending after Europe's sequel blood-letting two decades later.
As a result of the war, the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and Russian Empires went into the dustbin of history. The nationalistic aspirations of a variety of peoples, from the Balkans to the Arab nations to Southeast Asia, were set aflame.